ImageMagick及PHP的imagick扩展的安装及配置

在看在 ”
基于CentOS 5.5 搭建nginx +php +php-fpm+mysql高性能php平台“的1.7的时候,发现以下两个包,

wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.3.0.tgz

不太清楚两个包的区别是什么的,在网上查了一下,注意区别如下:

imagick是一个PHP的扩展,用ImageMagick提供的API来进行图片的创建与修改,不过这些操作已经包装到扩展imagick中去了,最终调用的是ImageMagick提供的API.

ImageMagick是一套软件系列,主要用于图片的创建、编辑以及转换等,详细的解释见ImageMagick的官方网站http://www.imagemagick.org/,ImageMagick与GD的性能要高很多,如果是在处理大量的图片时更加能体现ImageMagick的性能。

英文原文介绍如下:
imagick is a native php extension to create and modify images using the ImageMagick API.

ImageMagick is a software suite to create, edit, and compose bitmap images.. It can read, convert and write images in a variety of formats (over 100) including DPX, EXR, GIF, JPEG, JPEG-2000, PDF, PhotoCD, PNG, Postscript, SVG, and TIFF.

著名的图片服务提供商Flickr使用的是ImageMagick,还有Yupoo手机之家使用的也是ImageMagick。

1.安装ImageMagick


这里主要说说Linux下的安装,Windows下的安装就不说了,Windows下的安装相对简单一些,参考http://www.imagemagick.org/script/install-source.php#windows

由于安装imagick扩展时需要依赖ImageMagick的函数库,因此必须要先安装ImageMagick
从地址ftp://ftp.imagemagick.org/pub/ImageMagick/可以找到ImageMagick的地址

[root@CentOS_Test_Server software]# wget ftp://ftp.imagemagick.org/pub/ImageMagick/ImageMagick-6.5.3-10.tar.gz
–19:26:09–  ftp://ftp.imagemagick.org/pub/ImageMagick/ImageMagick-6.5.3-10.tar.gz
=> `ImageMagick-6.5.3-10.tar.gz’
正在解析主机 ftp.imagemagick.org… 74.63.13.227
Connecting to ftp.imagemagick.org|74.63.13.227|:21… 已连接。
正在以 anonymous 登录 … 登录成功!
==> SYST … 完成。    ==> PWD … 完成。
==> TYPE I … 完成。  ==> CWD /pub/ImageMagick … 完成。
==> SIZE ImageMagick-6.5.3-10.tar.gz … 11151919
==> PASV … 完成。    ==> RETR ImageMagick-6.5.3-10.tar.gz … 完成。
长度:11151919 (11M)

100%[=====================================================================================>] 11,151,919  33.4K/s   in 3m 9s

19:29:42 (57.7 KB/s) – `ImageMagick-6.5.3-10.tar.gz’ saved [11151919]

tar zxvf ImageMagick-6.5.3-10.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.3-10
./configure –prefix=/usr/local/imagemagick
make
make install
ImageMagick安装完成以后的目录结构如下:
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagemagick]# pwd
/usr/local/imagemagick
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagemagick]# ll
总计 32
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 07-21 19:59 bin
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 07-21 20:02 include
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 4096 07-21 20:07 lib
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 07-21 20:07 share
bin目录下的这些命令都可以通过命令行方式来操作图片
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagemagick]# ll bin/
总计 356
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24261 07-21 19:59 animate
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24711 07-21 19:59 compare
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24273 07-21 19:59 composite
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24261 07-21 19:59 conjure
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24261 07-21 19:59 convert
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24261 07-21 19:59 display
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24717 07-21 19:59 identify
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24259 07-21 19:59 import
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1402 07-21 19:59 Magick-config
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1458 07-21 19:59 Magick++-config
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1620 07-21 19:59 MagickCore-config
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1428 07-21 19:59 MagickWand-config
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24261 07-21 19:59 mogrify
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24261 07-21 19:59 montage
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24259 07-21 19:59 stream
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  1410 07-21 19:59 Wand-config
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagemagick]# ll include/
总计 8
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 07-21 20:07 ImageMagick
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagemagick]# ll include/ImageMagick/
总计 32
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 07-21 20:07 magick
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 07-21 20:07 Magick++
-rw-r–r– 1 root root  419 07-21 20:07 Magick++.h
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 07-21 20:07 wand
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagemagick]# ll lib/
总计 17884
drwxr-xr-x 4 root root    4096 07-21 20:02 ImageMagick-6.5.3
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 3123344 07-21 19:59 libMagick++.a
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 5225066 07-21 19:59 libMagickCore.a
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    1036 07-21 19:59 libMagickCore.la
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      22 07-21 19:59 libMagickCore.so -> libMagickCore.so.2.0.0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      22 07-21 19:59 libMagickCore.so.2 -> libMagickCore.so.2.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3681379 07-21 19:59 libMagickCore.so.2.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    1089 07-21 19:59 libMagick++.la
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      20 07-21 19:59 libMagick++.so -> libMagick++.so.2.0.0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      20 07-21 19:59 libMagick++.so.2 -> libMagick++.so.2.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2060411 07-21 19:59 libMagick++.so.2.0.0
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 2360930 07-21 19:59 libMagickWand.a
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    1080 07-21 19:59 libMagickWand.la
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      22 07-21 19:59 libMagickWand.so -> libMagickWand.so.2.0.0
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root      22 07-21 19:59 libMagickWand.so.2 -> libMagickWand.so.2.0.0
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1727376 07-21 19:59 libMagickWand.so.2.0.0
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    4096 07-21 20:07 pkgconfig

通过命令man ImageMagick可以查看ImageMagick手册的内容,特别要注意ImageMagick中的大小写,不要写错了

2.安装PHP的扩展imagick


安装imagick扩展时需要PHP >= 5.1.3,ImageMagick >= 6.2.4
http://pecl.php.net/package/imagick找到imagick的最新的stable版本

[root@CentOS_Test_Server software]# wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.2.2.tgz
–23:08:04–  http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.2.2.tgz
正在解析主机 pecl.php.net… 216.92.131.66
Connecting to pecl.php.net|216.92.131.66|:80… 已连接。
已发出 HTTP 请求,正在等待回应… 200 OK
长度:77212 (75K) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: `imagick-2.2.2.tgz.1′

100%[=====================================================================================>] 77,212      35.1K/s   in 2.1s

23:08:08 (35.1 KB/s) – `imagick-2.2.2.tgz.1′ saved [77212/77212]
cd imagick-2.2.2

用tar zxvf解压.tgz文件时报错,网上说的也是这么解压,还是不行啊,不知道解压报错跟什么有关
[root@CentOS_Test_Server software]# tar zxvf imagick-2.2.2.tgz
package.xml
imagick-2.2.2/examples/polygon.php
imagick-2.2.2/examples/captcha.php
imagick-2.2.2/examples/thumbnail.php
imagick-2.2.2/examples/watermark.php
imagick-2.2.2/config.m4
imagick-2.2.2/config.w32
imagick-2.2.2/CREDITS
imagick-2.2.2/imagick.c
imagick-2.2.2/imagick_class.c

gzip: stdin: invalid compressed data–format violated
tar: 归档文件中异常的 EOF
tar: 归档文件中异常的 EOF
tar: 错误不可恢复:现在退出

phpize是一个shell脚本,主要是用来进行编译环境的准备,执行以后会生成一些新的文件,为配置、编译及安装作好准备
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
Configuring for:
PHP Api Version:         20041225
Zend Module Api No:      20060613
Zend Extension Api No:   220060519

执行phpize命令以前目录imagick-2-2-2中的内容
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# ll
总计 260
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   4479 02-07 06:11 config.m4
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   2254 02-07 06:11 config.w32
-rw-r–r– 1 root root     39 02-07 06:11 CREDITS
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root   4096 07-21 23:09 examples
-rw-r–r– 1 root root  94719 02-07 06:11 imagick.c
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 111616 07-21 23:09 imagick_class.c

执行phpize命令以后目录imagick-2-2-2中的内容
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# ll
总计 1504
-rw-r–r– 1 root root  74808 07-21 23:12 acinclude.m4
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 295888 07-21 23:12 aclocal.m4
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root   4096 07-21 23:12 autom4te.cache
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root   4096 07-21 23:12 build
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  43499 07-21 23:12 config.guess
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   1684 07-21 23:12 config.h.in
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   4479 02-07 06:11 config.m4
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  31743 07-21 23:12 config.sub
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 453751 07-21 23:12 configure
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   4646 07-21 23:12 configure.in
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   2254 02-07 06:11 config.w32
-rw-r–r– 1 root root     39 02-07 06:11 CREDITS
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root   4096 07-21 23:09 examples
-rw-r–r– 1 root root  94719 02-07 06:11 imagick.c
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 111616 07-21 23:09 imagick_class.c
-rw-r–r– 1 root root      0 07-21 23:12 install-sh
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 186760 07-21 23:12 ltmain.sh
-rw-r–r– 1 root root   5694 07-21 23:12 Makefile.global
-rw-r–r– 1 root root      0 07-21 23:12 missing
-rw-r–r– 1 root root      0 07-21 23:12 mkinstalldirs
-rw-r–r– 1 root root  65036 07-21 23:12 run-tests.php

让我们来看看imagick的扩展的配置选项
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# ./configure –help | more
`configure’ configures this package to adapt to many kinds of systems.

Usage: ./configure [OPTION]… [VAR=VALUE]…

To assign environment variables (e.g., CC, CFLAGS…), specify them as
VAR=VALUE.  See below for descriptions of some of the useful variables.

Defaults for the options are specified in brackets.

Configuration:
-h, –help              display this help and exit
–help=short        display options specific to this package
–help=recursive    display the short help of all the included packages
-V, –version           display version information and exit
-q, –quiet, –silent   do not print `checking…’ messages
–cache-file=FILE   cache test results in FILE [disabled]
-C, –config-cache      alias for `–cache-file=config.cache’
-n, –no-create         do not create output files
–srcdir=DIR        find the sources in DIR [configure dir or `..’]

Installation directories:
–prefix=PREFIX         install architecture-independent files in PREFIX
[/usr/local]
–exec-prefix=EPREFIX   install architecture-dependent files in EPREFIX
[PREFIX]

By default, `make install’ will install all the files in
`/usr/local/bin’, `/usr/local/lib’ etc.  You can specify
an installation prefix other than `/usr/local’ using `–prefix’,
for instance `–prefix=$HOME’.

For better control, use the options below.

Fine tuning of the installation directories:
–bindir=DIR           user executables [EPREFIX/bin]
–sbindir=DIR          system admin executables [EPREFIX/sbin]
–libexecdir=DIR       program executables [EPREFIX/libexec]
–datadir=DIR          read-only architecture-independent data [PREFIX/share]
–sysconfdir=DIR       read-only single-machine data [PREFIX/etc]
–sharedstatedir=DIR   modifiable architecture-independent data [PREFIX/com]
–localstatedir=DIR    modifiable single-machine data [PREFIX/var]
–libdir=DIR           object code libraries [EPREFIX/lib]
–includedir=DIR       C header files [PREFIX/include]
–oldincludedir=DIR    C header files for non-gcc [/usr/include]
–infodir=DIR          info documentation [PREFIX/info]
–mandir=DIR           man documentation [PREFIX/man]

System types:
–build=BUILD     configure for building on BUILD [guessed]
–host=HOST       cross-compile to build programs to run on HOST [BUILD]
–target=TARGET   configure for building compilers for TARGET [HOST]

Optional Features:
–disable-FEATURE       do not include FEATURE (same as –enable-FEATURE=no)
–enable-FEATURE[=ARG]  include FEATURE [ARG=yes]
–enable-shared=PKGS  build shared libraries default=yes
–enable-static=PKGS  build static libraries default=yes
–enable-fast-install=PKGS  optimize for fast installation default=yes
–disable-libtool-lock  avoid locking (might break parallel builds)

Optional Packages:
–with-PACKAGE[=ARG]    use PACKAGE [ARG=yes]
–without-PACKAGE       do not use PACKAGE (same as –with-PACKAGE=no)
–with-libdir=NAME      Look for libraries in …/NAME rather than …/lib
–with-php-config=PATH  Path to php-config php-config
–with-imagick=DIR     Enables the imagick extension. DIR is the prefix to Imagemagick installation directory.
–with-imagick-gm=DIR  GraphicsMagick backend. NO LONGER SUPPORTED!
–with-gnu-ld           assume the C compiler uses GNU ld default=no
–with-pic              try to use only PIC/non-PIC objects default=use both
–with-tags=TAGS      include additional configurations automatic

Some influential environment variables:
CC          C compiler command
CFLAGS      C compiler flags
LDFLAGS     linker flags, e.g. -L<lib dir> if you have libraries in a
nonstandard directory <lib dir>
CPPFLAGS    C/C++ preprocessor flags, e.g. -I<include dir> if you have
headers in a nonstandard directory <include dir>
CPP         C preprocessor

Use these variables to override the choices made by `configure’ or to help
it to find libraries and programs with nonstandard names/locations.

./configure –with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config –with-imagick=/usr/local/imagemagick

编译过程中如果报错,则通过ln -s把ImageMagick的so及la文件链接到/usr/lib目录下,如果不报错,则不需要做链接,我原来是由于安装包不对,导致用tar zxvf解压的时候文件解出来的不全,例如一些.h文件都没有解压出来,所以编译当然会报错了,因此我才加了下面这些链接,后来编译还是报错。
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickCore.so /usr/lib/libMagickCore.so
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickCore.so.2 /usr/lib/libMagickCore.so.2
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickCore.la /usr/lib/libMagickCore.la

[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagick++.so /usr/lib/libMagick++.so
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagick++.so.2 /usr/lib/libMagick++.so.2
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagick++.la /usr/lib/libMagick++.la

[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickWand.so /usr/lib/libMagickWand.so
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickWand.so.2 /usr/lib/libMagickWand.so.2
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickWand.la /usr/lib/libMagickWand.la

[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickCore.so.2.0.0 /usr/lib/libMagickCore.so.2.0.0
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagick++.so.2.0.0 /usr/lib/libMagick++.so.2.0.0
[root@CentOS_Test_Server lib]# ln -s /usr/local/imagemagick/lib/libMagickWand.so.2.0.0 /usr/lib/libMagickWand.so.2.0.0

make
小记编译imagick扩展遇到的郁闷的问题
由于原来在目录/home/software下已经有文件imagick-2.2.2.tgz,这个文件是在vista下面下载后,通过Vmware共享给CentOS的,后来我通过wget又下载了一个,很巧的是也同样还是这个版本,文件名一模一样,因此新下载的imagick扩展自动命名为imagick-2.2.2.tgz.1,wget的下载日志“23:08:08 (35.1 KB/s) – `imagick-2.2.2.tgz.1′ saved [77212/77212]”,解压的时候解的仍然是vista下面下载的那个文件,因此导致解压的时候报错,解压出来的文件不全,因此导致编译报错,可能是与安装包的格式有关吧,参考http://linux.chinaunix.net/bbs/thread-1026205-1-1.html,与这个有点类似吧,通过wget下载的安装包应该是不会出现这个问题的,然后rm imagick-2.2.2.tgz,mv imagick-2.2.2.tgz.1 imagick-2.2.2.tgz,tar zxvf imagick-2.2.2.tgz,解压后正常,说明是安装包的问题,然后后来的一切就都正常了。

make install也就是把编译生成的so文件拷贝到php的扩展目录下
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# make install
/bin/sh /home/software/imagick-2.2.2/libtool –mode=install cp ./imagick.la /home/software/imagick-2.2.2/modules
cp ./.libs/imagick.so /home/software/imagick-2.2.2/modules/imagick.so
cp ./.libs/imagick.lai /home/software/imagick-2.2.2/modules/imagick.la
PATH=”$PATH:/sbin” ldconfig -n /home/software/imagick-2.2.2/modules
———————————————————————-
Libraries have been installed in:
/home/software/imagick-2.2.2/modules

If you ever happen to want to link against installed libraries
in a given directory, LIBDIR, you must either use libtool, and
specify the full pathname of the library, or use the `-LLIBDIR’
flag during linking and do at least one of the following:
– add LIBDIR to the `LD_LIBRARY_PATH’ environment variable
during execution
– add LIBDIR to the `LD_RUN_PATH’ environment variable
during linking
– use the `-Wl,–rpath -Wl,LIBDIR’ linker flag
– have your system administrator add LIBDIR to `/etc/ld.so.conf’

See any operating system documentation about shared libraries for
more information, such as the ld(1) and ld.so(8) manual pages.
———————————————————————-
Installing shared extensions:     /usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/

查看so文件是否已经生成,发现imagick.so文件已经在php的扩展目录下面了,证明已经安装成功
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# ll /usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/
总计 3040
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  172209 05-17 19:07 db4.so
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  517843 04-28 20:55 eaccelerator.so
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  748762 07-22 03:30 imagick.so
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  185627 04-28 20:38 memcache.so
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root  118580 04-28 22:23 pdo_mysql.so
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1308827 07-08 19:10 xapian.so

3.相关配置


vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini,加入如下的一行
extension = “imagick.so”
然后执行php -m | grep imagick,发现已经出现imagick模块了,证明imagick已经生效了
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# php -m | grep imagick
imagick

上面只是命令行生效了,为了让web服务器也生效,必须要重启php-fpm(我的环境是Nginx+fastcgi方式执行的php)
[root@CentOS_Test_Server imagick-2.2.2]# /usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm restart
Shutting down php_fpm . done
Starting php_fpm  done

vi index.php,输入如下的内容
<?php
phpinfo()
?>
在浏览器执行index.php即可看到模块imagick已经生效

4.测试


PHP的imagick安装以后,提供4个PHP的图片处理类,分别是Imagick、ImagickDraw、ImagickPixel、ImagickPixelIterator,可以参考PHP的英文手册(一般指的是chm格式的手册,可以下载到本地查阅)或者在线手册(http://cn.php.net/imagick)

可以用两种方式进行调用,一种方式是直接调用/usr/local/imagemagick/bin目录下的命令,第二种方式是调用PHP的imagick扩展提供的api

测试一,通过php扩展进行调用
vi /home/htdocs/www/imagick_test1.php,输入如下的代码
<?php
header(‘Content-type: image/jpeg’);
$image = new Imagick(‘old_s.jpg’);
// If 0 is provided as a width or height parameter,
// aspect ratio is maintained
$image->thumbnailImage(100, 0);
echo $image;
?>
然后在浏览中执行,即可看到一张100px × 80px的图片,old_s是大S的意思,也就是我是用大S的照片做的测试,在这里就不截图了,其它的例子大家看手册基本就会用了

另外可以在上述文件中的第一行加入判断模块imagick已经安装或加载的代码,extension_loaded(‘imagick’) or die(‘imagick not loaded’);

测试二,通过命令行进行调用
进入到图片所在目录
cd /home/htdocs/www
/usr/local/imagemagick/bin/convert old_s.jpg -resize 50% old_s.png
原来的图片old_s.jpg是800*640,转换后生成的图片old_s.png是400*320,刚好减少一半
每个命令的选项少的有几十个,多的则有上百个选项,非常复杂,功能非常的强大,参考http://www.imagemagick.org/script/command-line-tools.php

另外,Discuz采用了ImageMagick及GD两种方式来处理图片,Discuz7.0版本有个文件Discuz_7.0.0_SC_GBK/upload/include/image.class.php,基中的方法Thumb_IM及Watermark_IM使用的就是ImageMagick,大家可以参考一下Discuz的代码。

BTW:我写这篇博客是用的笔记本电脑的电池,因为有一段时间没有用笔记本电脑的电池了,以后每月尽量充放电一次,以保持电池的容量,电池大概用了二个小时零10分钟吧,还算可以

参考:
ImageMagick百度百科:http://baike.baidu.com/view/1109708.htm
ImageMagick中文站:http://www.imagemagick.com.cn/
ImageMagick英文站:http://www.imagemagick.org/
imagemagick安装英文文档:http://www.imagemagick.org/script/install-source.php
ImageMagick的ftp下载地址:ftp://ftp.imagemagick.org/pub/ImageMagick/
ImageMagick的api: http://www.imagemagick.org/script/api.php
ImageMagick的命令行参考文档:http://www.imagemagick.org/script/command-line-tools.php
ImageMagick的PHP手册:http://cn.php.net/imagick
ImageMagick的PHP扩展:http://pecl.php.net/package/imagick